La ville la plus riche de France de moins de 20.000 habitants est Marne la Coquette (81 746 â¬ par ménage) Voici dans l'ordre alphabétique la liste des villes françaises métropolitaines. Again this is a very small number, and here France stands absolutely apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries (communes in Switzerland or Rhineland-Palatinate may have a smaller surface area, as mentioned above, but they are more populated). Metropolitan France consists of 35,228 communes at the beginning of 2018. Today, French communes are still very much the same in their general principles as those that were established at the beginning of the Revolution. The municipal arrondissement is the only administrative unit below the commune in the French Republic, but existing only in these three communes. They had been emancipated from the power of feudal lords in the 12th and 13th centuries, had municipal bodies which administered the city, and bore some resemblance with the communes that the French Revolution would establish except for two key points: In the north, cities tended to be administered by échevins (from an old Germanic word meaning judge), while in the south, cities tended to be administered by consuls (in a clear reference to Roman antiquity), but Bordeaux was administered by jurats (etymologically meaning "sworn men") and Toulouse by capitouls ("men of the chapter"). By 1837 that situation was judged impractical, as mayors and municipal councils could not be parties in courts. These cities were made up of several parishes (up to ca. Lyon Département : Rhône (Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes). Commune" in English has a historical bias, and implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history (after the rising of the Paris Commune, 1871, which could have more felicitously been called, in English, "the rising of the City of Paris"). These abrupt changes profoundly alienated devout Catholics, and France soon was plunged into the throes of civil war, with the fervently religious regions of western France at its center. In exchange for the creation of a community, the government allocates money to them based on their population, thus providing an incentive for communes to team up and form communities. During the revolution, approximately 41,000 communes were created, on territory corresponding to the limits of modern-day France (the 41,000 figure includes the communes of the departments of Savoie, Haute-Savoie and Alpes-Maritimes which were annexed in 1795, but does not include the departments of modern-day Belgium and Germany west of the Rhine, which were part of France between 1795 and 1815). In other words, just 8 percent of the French population live in 57 percent of its communes, whilst 92 percent are concentrated in the remaining 43 percent. The size of the municipal council, the method of electing the municipal council, the maximum allowable pay of the mayor and deputy mayors, and municipal campaign finance limits (among other features) all depend on the population echelon into which a particular commune falls. Collectivités territoriales; Accueil Régions Départements Arrondissements Cantons E.P.C.I. Cherchez ici votre commune. Administration territoriale de la France. In addition, it offered central government finance aimed at encouraging further communes to join together in intercommunal structures. All of these communes would have equal status, they would all have a mayor at their head, and a municipal council elected by the inhabitants of the commune. . A communal house had to be built in each of these villages, which would house the meetings of the municipal council as well as the administration of the commune. This article is about the municipal administrations of France. The municipal councilors are elected by the inhabitants of the commune for a 6-year term. In rural areas, many communes have entered a community of communes only to benefit from government funds. This is still the case today. The Revolutionaries were inspired by Cartesian ideas as well as by the philosophy of the Enlightenment. Foundation for Intentional Community (FIC) is a registered 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. Either search by alphabetical order or see the communes listed by department. Vous trouverez ici la liste de toutes les communes de France classées par département. Ce jeu de données est historisé : la date de validité de chaque enregistrement est indiquée dans le champ "Année". Le nombre de communes en France, est en fréquente modification, généralement à la baisse, du fait des fusions et scissions de communes. Suburban communes often team up with the city at the core of their urban area to form a community charged with managing public transport or even administering the collection of local taxes. ③ Explore by region In some urban areas like Marseille there exist four distinct intercommunal structures! Contribute to high54/Communes-France-JSON development by creating an account on GitHub. Cliquez sur un nom de département de la liste ci-dessous pour accéder à la liste de toutes les communes de ce département.Vous pouvez également rechercher un département à partir de la carte des départements français en bas de page. The Paris Commune was a popular-led democratic government that ruled Paris from March 18 to May 28, 1871. On 1 January 2007, there were 2,573 such communities in metropolitan France (including five syndicats d'agglomération nouvelle, a category currently being phased out), made up of 33,327 communes (91.1 percent of all the communes of metropolitan France), and 52.86 million inhabitants, i.e. They usually group into the same commune several villages or towns, often with sizeable distances among them. The new, larger, commune of Paris was set up under the oversight of Emperor Napoléon III in 1859, but after 1859 the limits of Paris rigidified. Communes de france - Base des codes postaux Enrichissement du fichier fourni par la Poste avec les noms de régions, départements et commune en lettre â¦ Toutes les informations pratiques de vos communes partout en France.. Vous cherchez les coordonnées de la mairie de Lhéraule ou alors de la préfecture du département Somme? , One major often raised problem with intercommunality, is the fact that the intercommunal structures are not subject to directly election by the people, so it is the representatives of each individual commune that sit in the new structure. Les communes de France avec leur code postal et leur code INSEE. The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. Ce tableau liste les communes de France de 30 000 habitants et plus en 2011 sur la base du décret no 2013-1289 du 27 décembre 2013 authentifiant les chiffres des populations de métropole, des départements d'outre-mer, de Saint-Barthélemy, de Saint-Martin et de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon6. Elle constitue l'échelon de base des divisions administratives du territoire français. These structures have been left untouched by the Chevènement law, and they are on the decline. With its 904 communes, Alsace has three times as many municipalities as Sweden, which has a much larger territory covering 449,964 km2 (173,732 sq mi) and yet is divided into only 290 municipalities (kommuner). Entre 2007 et 2017, la population a augmenté de 0,5 % par an en moyenne, soit 292 400 personnes supplémentaires chaque année. This is because the suburban communes refused an urban community for fear of losing too much power, and opted for a community of agglomeration, despite the fact that a community of agglomeration receives less government funds than an urban community. 8.986 million (=13.9%) reside in 25,453 communes that have a population of less than 1,000. Commune of France is the leader of the Syndicalist Internationale and maintains good relations with almost all socialist countries and major socialist movements (such as the CNT-FAI) around the world. Such cooperation first made its appearance at the end of the 19th century in the form of a law on 22 March 1890, which provided for the establishment of single-purpose intercommunal associations. In many areas, rich communes have joined with other rich communes and have refused to let in poorer communes, for fear that their citizens would be overtaxed to the benefit of poorer suburbs. Les communes sont régies par le titre XII de la Constitution de 1958 et la deuxième partie du code général des collectivités territoriales. Since the PLM Law of 1982, three French communes also have a special status in that they are further divided into municipal arrondissements: these are Paris, Marseille, and Lyon. A commune is the smallest and oldest administrative division in France. There are about 36,000 communes in total across the country. gps.over-blog.com a vu le jour à la suite dâun pari un peu farfelu : photographier les panneaux dâentrée de toutes les communes de France. Parishes lacked the municipal structures of post-Revolution communes. Toulouse Département : Haute-Garonne (Occitanie). ② Maps of France Paris Département : Paris (Île-de-France). Countless rural communes that had hundreds of inhabitants at the time of the French Revolution now have only a hundred inhabitants or fewer. , Two famous examples of this are Toulouse and Paris. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was even smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres (4.14 sq mi). A commune in France is a local 'administrative unit' and can be as small as a few hectares - or as large as Paris! Le tableau suivant donne la liste des communes, en précisant leur code Insee, leur code postal principal, leur arrondissement, leur canton, leur appartenance aux principales structures intercommunales, leur superficie et leur population, d'après les chiffres de l'Insee issus du recensement 2017 [Note 1], . Structures with fiscal power. There have long been calls in France for a massive merger of communes, including by such distinguished voices as the president of the Cour des Comptes (the central auditing administrative body in France). La liste des communes par département est accessible en cliquant sur le nombre de communes du département. By way of contrast, in the German states bordering Alsace, the geo-political and administrative areas have been subject to various re-organizations from the 1960s onward. Despite enormous differences in population, each of the communes of the French Republic possess a mayor (maire) and a municipal council (conseil municipal), which jointly manage the commune from the municipal hall (mairie), with exactly the same powers no matter the size of the commune. In this area as in many others, the work of the National Assembly was, properly speaking, revolutionary: not content with transforming all the chartered cities and towns into communes, the National Assembly also decided to turn all the village parishes into full-status communes. This high number is typical of metropolitan France but is atypical when compared with other European countries. 24.6 million people (= 38.2%; 2016 population) live in 434 communes with at least 20,000 inhabitants. This small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium (11,265 inhabitants), or even Spain (564 inhabitants). In Toulouse, on top of there being six intercommunal structures, the main community of Toulouse and its suburbs is only a community of agglomeration, although Toulouse is large enough to create an Urban Community according to the law. These municipal arrondissements are not to be confused with the arrondissements that are subdivisions of French départements: French communes are considered legal entities, whereas municipal arrondissements, by contrast, have no official capacity and no budget of their own. Liste des 1707 communes de Franche-Comté, avec leur intercommunalités, leur canton, leur bassin de vie, leur code postal, population 2020. In many places, the local feudal lord (seigneur) still had a major influence in the village's affairs, collecting taxes from tenant-villagers and ordering them to work the corvée, controlling which fields were to be used and when, and how much of the harvest should be given to him. This uniformity of status is a legacy of the French Revolution, which wanted to do away with the local idiosyncrasies and tremendous differences of status that existed in the kingdom of France. Le tableau ci-dessous recense les communes comptant 10 habitants ou moins en 2017 .. Les six communes ne comportant aucun habitant sont les villages français détruits durant la Première Guerre mondiale et qui, considérés « morts pour la France », n'ont pas été reconstruits. Thus, in Europe, only Switzerland has as high a density of communes as France, and even there an extensive merger movement has started in the last 10 years. Several other cities of France quickly followed suit, and communes arose everywhere, each with their municipal guard. 50 parishes in the case of Paris), and they were usually enclosed by a defensive wall. Communes can leave the syndicate at any time. Consequently, the Alsace region—despite having a land area only one-fifth the size and a total population only one-sixth of that of its neighbor Baden-Württemberg—has almost as many municipalities. Even after Paris regained the right to elect its own mayor in 1977, the central government retained control of the Paris police. Alsace, with an area of 8,280 km2 (3,200 sq mi), and now part of the Région Grand Est, used to be the smallest of the regions of metropolitan France, and still has no fewer than 904 communes.  This is a considerably higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still largely reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. Since then, tremendous changes have affected France, as they have the rest of Europe: the Industrial Revolution, two world wars, and the rural exodus have all depopulated the countryside and increased the size of cities. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes; even uninhabited mountains or rain forests are dependent on a commune for their administration. Ainsi, au 1 er janvier 2016 , la France ne comptait plus que 35 868 communes hors Mayotte , ou 35 885 communes en incluant les 17 communes de Mayotte [ 1 ] . Major Cities ⑤ Places (by dept. Many rural communes with few residents struggle to maintain and manage basic services such as running water, garbage collection, or properly paved communal roads. It shows the distinctive nature of the French commune as a geo-political or administrative entity. Thus, they set out to establish administrative divisions that would be uniform across the country: the whole of France would be divided into départements, themselves divided into arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons, themselves divided into communes, no exceptions. 855 393 habitants. Priests were forced to surrender their centuries-old baptism, marriage, and burial books, which were deposited in the mairies. Therefore, when they created the communes, they deprived them of any legal "personality" (as they did with the départements), with only the central state having legal "personality." Syndicates can be set up for a particular purpose or to deal with several simultaneous matters. The United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where UK districts are much larger. This "mayor" was called provost of the merchants (prévôt des marchands) in Paris and Lyon; maire in Marseille, Bordeaux, Rouen, Orléans, Bayonne and many other cities and towns; mayeur in Lille; premier capitoul in Toulouse; viguier in Montpellier; premier consul in many towns of southern France; prêteur royal in Strasbourg; maître échevin in Metz; maire royal in Nancy; or prévôt in Valenciennes. For the government of Paris in 1871, see, France territorial subdivision for municipalities, A request that this article title be changed to, Communes farthest away from the capital city of France, Learn how and when to remove this template message, French villages destroyed in the First World War, Saint-Remy-en-Bouzemont-Saint-Genest-et-Isson, Beaujeu-Saint-Vallier-Pierrejux-et-Quitteur, List of fifteen largest French metropolitan areas by population, Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques, "Code officiel géographique — Présentation", Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, "Code des collectivités d'outre-mer (COM)", "Le code officiel géographique (COG), avant, pendant et autour (Version 3, volume 1)", "Circonscriptions administratives au 1er janvier 2015 : comparaisons régionales", "25 Jahre Gemeindereform Baden-Württemberg; hier: Neuordnung der Gemeinden", "Statistique des communes (fin de l'Ancien Régime et xixe siècle)", Direction générale des collectivités locales (DGCL), Ministry of the Interior, "Répartition des EPCI à fiscalité propre par département au 01/01/2007", Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2017, Le développement de l'intercommunalité: la révolution discrète, Complete lists of cities and municipalities in France, List of administrative divisions by country, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Communes_of_France&oldid=997013785, Fourth-level administrative country subdivisions, Articles that may contain original research from January 2015, All articles that may contain original research, Articles needing additional references from April 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2011, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, these municipal bodies were not democratic; they were usually in the hands of some rich bourgeois families upon whom, over time, nobility had been conferred, so they can be better labeled as.  "Commune" in English has a historical bias, and implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history (after the rising of the Paris Commune, 1871, which could have more felicitously been called, in English, "the rising of the City of Paris"). The commune (French pronunciation: [kɔmyn]) is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. Civil marriages were established and started to be performed in the mairie with a ceremony not unlike the traditional one, with the mayor replacing the priest, and the name of the law replacing the name of God ("Au nom de la loi, je vous déclare unis par les liens du mariage." Au 1er mars 2016 on comptait 35 973 communes, dont 35 861 en métropole. Communes vary widely in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. French law makes allowances for the vast differences in commune size in a number of areas of administrative law. From 1794 to 1977—except for a few months in 1848 and 1870-1871—Paris had no mayor and was thus directly controlled by the departmental prefect. Friendly relations with Mexico, Georgia and Bharitya Commune. Communes de moins de 10 habitants en 2017. Par exemple, les enregistrements avec comme valeur "2018" dans le champ Année correspondent aux communes françaises existantes au 1er Janvier 2018. Terri toires-fr.fr. The Chevènement law tidied up all these practices, abolishing some structures and creating new ones. In 1971 the Marcellin law offered support and money from the government to entice the communes to merge freely with each other, but the law had only a limited effect (only about 1,300 communes agreed to merge with others). Alsace has more than double the total number of municipalities of the Netherlands which, in spite of having a population nine times larger and a land area four times larger than Alsace, is divided into just 390 municipalities (gemeenten). Communes de France. Communes themselves then form part of one of the 96 departments of France, which themselves are part of the 22 regions of metropolitan France. A help for genealogy, with access to departmental and communal archives of France. Nom de la ville: Code postal: Département: Habitants Toggle navigation france.comersis.com Nouvelles cartes 500 715 habitants. French kings often prided themselves on ruling over a "realm of 100,000 steeples". The two communes in the French Republic with the longest names (38 letters): Three digits (department or collectivity) and two digits (commune) for the, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 16:42. Unlike most other European countries, which stringently merged their communes to better reflect modern-day densities of population (such as Germany and Italy around 1970), dramatically decreasing the number of communes in the process – the Gemeinden of West Germany were decreased from 24,400 to 8,400 in the space of a few years – France only carried out mergers at the margin, and those were mostly carried out during the 19th century. The complete code has eight digits and three spaces within, but there is a popular simplified code with five digits and no space within: Each commune has a municipal council (conseil municipal) compound of municipal councilors (conseillers municipaux). In areas where languages other than French are or were spoken, most place-names have been translated into a French spelling and pronunciation, such as Dunkerque (Duinkerke in Dutch), Toulouse (Tolosa in Occitan), Strasbourg (Straßburg in German), Perpignan (Perpinyà in Catalan), and many place names derived from Gaulish or Latin. Liste des communes. Les trois plus importantes communes, Paris, Lyon et Marseille, ont un statut particulier visâ¦ Those without fiscal power, the loosest form of intercommunality. There are only a few exceptions: Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres (5.75 sq mi). As for Paris, no intercommunal structure has emerged there, the suburbs of Paris fearing the concept of a "Greater Paris," and so disunity still is the rule in the metropolitan area, with the suburbs of Paris creating many different intercommunal structures all without the city. The most extreme example of this is Paris, where the urbanized area sprawls over 396 communes. , These impressive results however may hide a murkier reality. Une aide pour la généalogie, avec accès aux archives départementales et communales de France. (2) Within the current extent of overseas France, which has remained unchanged since the independence of the New Hebrides in 1980. This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. Le tableau suivant donne la liste des communes, en précisant leur code Insee, leur code postal principal, leur arrondissement, leur canton, leur appartenance aux principales structures intercommunales, leur superficie et leur population, d'après les chiffres de l'Insee issus du recensement 2017 [Note 1], . A commune is the smallest and oldest administrative division in France. " Today about 90 percent of communes and departments are exactly the same as those designed at the time of the French Revolution more than 200 years ago, with the same limits. Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials (mayor and a "conseil municipal") with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. The municipal council is the legislative and deliberative organ of the commune. , In urban areas, the new intercommunal structures are much more a reality, being created by local decision-makers out of genuine belief in the worth of working together. Communities of communes are given the least money per inhabitant, whereas urban communities are given the most money per inhabitant, thus pushing communes to form more integrated communities where they have fewer powers, which they might otherwise have been loath to do if it were not for government money. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. Annuaire des villes et mairies de France. It would take Napoleon I to re-establish peace in France, stabilize the new administrative system, and make it generally accepted by the population. Starting from the indexes below you can locate almost every place in France - and certain information - their position on a map, local places of interest, airports and hotels nearby etc. French administrative divisions, however, have remained extremely rigid and unchanged. One problem is that mergers reduce the number of available elected positions, and thus are not popular with local politicians. Liste des villes de France au format JSON. there was no uniform status for these chartered cities, each one having its own status and specific organization. Other examples of retained names in the languages once spoken, or still spoken, on French territory: INSEE (Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques) gives numerical indexing codes to various entities in France, notably the communes (which do not coincide with postcodes).